Using The Scientific Method by Darrel Bernard & Lon Edwards

May 17, 2018

Using The Scientific Method by Darrel Bernard & Lon Edwards

Using The Scientific Method by Darrel Bernard & Lon Edwards Summary and Questions Notes

Here are is the summary and question-answer notes of the essay 'Using the Scientific Method' by Darrel Bernard & Lon Edwards. These notes have been prepared for the general audience and specifically for the students of 2nd year Intermediate part II.  The notes include a summary of the essay and the important questions with answers

Using the Scientific Method (Darrel Bernard & Lon Edwards)

 

Summary

This is an informative and non-fiction essay by Darrel Bernard and Lon Edwards. The writers have explained the ways our lives have been changed by the use of scientific method. The writers tell that we have greatly benefitted from the use of scientific method. We have had a better control of diseases. Science has discovered the cause of diseases. We are now given vaccines against the diseases. The new diagnostic methods have helped us treat many diseases. as a result, our life chances have increased.

Our sanitary conditions have become good. Only a hundred years ago, our cities faced numerous sanitary problems which have been addressed by using the scientific method. Today our cities are paved, well drained, and they are cleaned regularly. A century ago it was common practice in many cities by the bucketful for household use. Water had to be carried considerable distance from the well to the home. It was, therefore, used very sparingly for cleaning purposes. Towns and cities today have water systems that usually provide enough for household use. 


  More Food and Better Food. Changes have taken eating habits. Through the use of science, we have learned that it is healthful to eat many kinds of food, and we have learned how to provide
ourselves with a variety of foods throughout the year.  Regardless of where people live today, they can obtain some fresh fruits, meats, and vegetables throughout the year. By the quick-freeze method, vegetables, fruits, seafood, and meats of various kinds can be preserved so that they are both nutritious and enjoyable. 

Superstitious beliefs are being overcome by using the scientific method to demonstrate that there is no sound basis for them. Few people today believe that diseases are caused by evil spirits. Though astrology and fortune-telling are still practiced, they do not influence the lives of as many people as they once did.  The discoveries of scientists have helped people develop an attitude of open-mindedness. They are more willing to look for new truths than to assume that what has been onsidered true will always be true. 

Questions Answers Notes

Q. 1: How has the scientific method helped us in our fight against disease?
  Ans: The scientific method has helped us in knowing the causes of diseases and their prevention. It has also enabled us to make life-saving drugs.
Q. 2: Write a note on the better sanitary conditions available in our cities today and compare them with what they were like a hundred years ago?
  Ans: Today, our city streets are paved and well drained. They are cleaned regularly. Garbage and sewage are disposed of properly. A hundred years ago, the streets were unpaved and poorly drained. Household garbage and other refuse were thrown in the streets. So, today sanitary conditions are far better than a hundred years ago.
Q. 3: What are sanitary conditions like our villages today and how would you improve them?
  Ans: Today, our villages are poorly drained, outdoor toilets are common and streets are unpaved. We could improve them by making the people aware of better sanitation and its positive effect on their health.
Q. 4: How has scientific method helped us in the production and preservation of foods?
  Ans: Through scientific method, we get more production of food. Modern methods of selecting, grading and processing have helped us a lot in the preservation of food.
Q. 5: We are less fearful than our ancestors. What were our ancestors afraid of?
  Ans: We are less fearful than our ancestors because we have left believing superstitions. Our ancestors were afraid of black cats, broken mirrors and the number 13.
Q. 6: How has the scientific method enabled us to get over the old fears?
  Ans: Scientific method has made us reasonable. Now, we know there is a sound reason behind every happening. In this way, the scientific method has enabled us to get over the old fears.
Q. 7: What part did astrology play in the lives of men and women in the past? Give examples?
  Ans: In the past, astrology played an important part in the lives of men and women. People used to consult astrologists before marriages and other important matters of life.
Q. 8: Describe some of the superstitions still current in our country. How do they affect the lives of those who believe in them?
 Ans: Still some people believe in wearing charms and other superstitions like them. They affect the lives of those according to belief.
Q. 9: What were the survival chances two hundred years ago?
  Ans: Two hundred years ago, seven out of eight babies died before reaching their first birthday.
Q. 10: What do we mean by the word attitude?
  Ans: By attitude, we mean the way we feel and think towards an idea or an event.
Q.11: What is meant by superstitions?
  Ans: Feelings which involve fears are called superstitions. Black cats, broken mirrors and number 13 are some common superstitions.
Q.12: How did thrifty housewives preserve food in the past?
  Ans: Thrifty housewives preserved their home-grown vegetables and fruits by canning, pickling, or drying them for use during the cold weather. Meats were preserved by salting and drying or by freezing.
Q.13: How scientific method has improved our ways of life?
  Ans: Scientific method has improved our ways of life by solving health problems, by increasing production and preservation of food and by bringing positive changes in our attitude.
Q.14: What is the purpose of this lesson?
  Ans: This lesson helps us to understand how the use of scientific method has improved living conditions and changed our attitude.

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