The Jewel of the World Summary and Notes

The Jewel of the World Essay Notes and Summary

Here are the questions answers notes and summary for 2nd-year students. This post contains all important questions of the essay "The Jewel of the World" that is part of Second Year English Syllabus book II.

The Jewel of the World by Phillip K. Hitti


Written by Philip K Hitti, this essay gives us an account of the splendid history of Muslims and their remarkable empire in Spain. Cordova was the capital of Spain and it was popular all across the world. The essay starts with the dramatic escape of two young brothers from the Umayyad family from the hands of Abbasids. The younger brother was deceived and killed by the soldiers of Abbasid army and the elder brother, named Abd-ul-Rehman managed to escape to Palestine.

He returned to South Africa and some Syrian Troops from Damascus accepted him as their leader. Soon the whole of Spain was opened to him and he had full control over it. The people were with him. The Abbasid caliph appointed a new governor of Spain but it was killed and the head was sent back to the caliph in Bagdad. The caliph realized the strength of his enemy.

After that, the threat of invasion by Bagdad was no more an issue. He focused to beautify his city. He organized a strong army of 40, 000 soldiers. Ha had native ability and talent.
After his death, his son could not manage to keep the empire organized and controlled. Due to his failed policies and poor systems, the empire was turned into small states due to tribal wars.

in 1911, when his son Abd-ul-Rehman III came to power, Cordova touched to the glories of culture and civilization. He disciplined the army and made himself more strong. He built a library and many universities and hospitals. He introduced many arts and disciplines of knowledge. The earth of Spain gave birth to many renowned scientists, doctors, and engineers. Soon Spain was the richest and most thickly populated county of Europe.

Abd-al-Rahman's successor, Al-Hakani started where Abd-al-Rehman had left off. Al-Hakam was a great scholar and he patronized learning. Codove is rightly called The Jewel of the world

Questions Answers Notes


 Q. 1: Give an account of the early career of Abd-al-Rehman I, his dramatic escape and his adventures in Africa?
  Ans: In 750, after the defeat of the Umayyad family, once when he was in Bedouin camp, the Abbasid soldiers came to kill him and his brother, he saved his life by diving into the river and swam away from the reach of the Abbasid army. He bore much hardship and reached Spain.

Q. 2: How did Abd-al-Rehman deal with the governor appointed by the Abbasid caliph to contest his rule?
  Ans: Abd-al-Rehman killed the caliph, preserved his head in salt and camphor, wrapped in back flag and presented it to the Abbasid caliph with a letter of appointment.

Q. 3: What did the Abbasid caliph say on receiving the head of his governor?
  Ans: On receiving the head of his governor, he was filled with horror and said: “Thanks be to Allah for having placed the sea between us and such a foe”.

 Q. 4: What did Abd-al-Rehman do to make himself strong and to beautify his capital?
  Ans: To make himself strong, he trained a well-disciplined army of 40,000 of more Berbers and to beautify his capital,. he introduced a system of pure water. He built up a palace for himself and a garden by its sides. He founded the great most of Cordova.

Q. 5: Give an account of the all-round progress made by the Arabs under Abd-al-Rehman III?
  Ans: During his reign, weaving, leather making, silk, glassware, brass work and the art of other metals flourished in Spain. Cordova became one of the most cultured city. It had 70 libraries and a number of books. He enlarged the University of Cordova and established a library with the collection of 4, 00,000 books.

Q. 6: What did Al- Hakam do to promote learning and scholarship in his kingdom?
  Ans: Al- Hakam was the successor of Abd- al-Rehman III, and was a learned man. He patronized learning. He enlarges the University of Cordova and established a library with a collection of 4, 00,000 books.

Q. 7: Give the early physical appearance of Abd-al-Rehman I?
  Ans: He was a striking young man of 20, tall lean, with sharp aquiline features and red hair .he was an able man with strong willpower.

Q. 8: Describe the royal palace, al-Zahra?
 Ans: The royal palace, Al-Zahra was the most beautiful palace in the world. Imported marbles and other material were used in its construction. It had 400 rooms and apartments. Thousands of slaves and body-guards of “Amir” lived there.

 Q. 9: Why was “Generalife” ( Jannat-al-arif) so famous?
 Ans: The word “Generalife” comes from the Arabic word “Jannat-al-Arif”, which means: “the inspector’s paradise”. It was one of the best-known gardens of Spain. It was famous because o its wide shades, waterfalls and soft breeze. It was in the form of an amphitheater and was irrigated by many streams.

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  • The Jewel of the World Summary and NotesThe Jewel of the World Summary and NotesReviewed by Saif Ullah ZahidonSeptember 14, 2018Rating: 5

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