Hunger and Population Explosion - Summary and Notes

Hunger and Population Explosion by Anna McKenzie

Hunger and Population Explosion is a thought-provoking essay written by Anna McKenzie. This essay is included in Book II of English for 2nd year F.Sc and F.A classes in Boards of Punjab Pakistan. Here are the summary and questions notes of this essay for the students of F.Sc F.A and class 12th class.

Hunger and population explosion


In this essay, the authors and described the issue of overpopulation and its effects on human life. She describes the meaning of hunger on a larger scale. She says hunger is a painful thing. She says the having not enough to eat for a long time is a situation of hunger. This situation when prevails for long on a large scale, it is termed as "famine".

She says the increasing population, medical advancement, crop failures, floods, earthquakes, and other disasters are the main causes of famines. She had also described some great famines of the past.

The authoress has sequentially described the main reason for various factors which cause hunger and famines. She says the birthrate and death rates are directly linked with the population increase. The birth rate is relatively high in poor countries and they have to manage a huge population with limited resources. Underdeveloped countries face hunger due to the population explosion.

Questions answers Notes


Q. 1: What does hunger mean on a large scale as viewed by the author?
 Ans Hunger does not mean missing one meal. It means never having enough to eat. After one meal there is no surety of another meal.

Q. 2: Describe some great famines of the past.
 Ans: The Nile remained dry for seven years and the Egyptians had to face famine. Likewise, China and England faced great famines and millions of people died in Russia because of famine in 1921. The worst famine of the century struck India in 1964-65.

Q. 3: How do famines occur?
Ans Some of the causes of famines are overpopulation, failure of crops, shortage of food, and lack of rain. If the food available is not enough for the people to eat there may spread a famine. In such cases, people starve to death.

Q. 4: What is the main reason for the population increase today?
 Ans: The main reason for population increase is the difference between the birth rate and death rate. The fatal diseases have been controlled. Due to this, the death rate has been reduced. As a result, the population is increasing rapidly.

Q. 5: What is meant by birth rate and death rate and how do they affect the population of a country?
Ans: Birth rate means the number of births per 1000 population while the death rate means the number of deaths per 1000 population. The main reason for the population increase is the difference between birth rate and death- rate.

Q. 6: What have public-health measures to do with the increase in population?
 Ans: Public health measures have controlled epidemics and fatal diseases. The discovery of the treatment of many diseases has decreased the death rate. When the death rate decreases, the population increases.

Q. 7: Account for the high birth rate in under-developed countries?
 Ans: In underdeveloped countries, the birth rate is very high and most of such countries are overpopulated. These countries are unable to provide even basic facilities to their people. The basic reason for the high birth rate is the lack of education.

Q. 8: Why is the birth rate not so high in the more advanced countries?
 Ans: The people of advanced countries are wise, intelligent, and educated. They are aware of the danger of overpopulation. Therefore, the birth rate is not so high in these countries.

Q. 9: Give a brief account of the poor economic conditions prevailing in underdeveloped countries.
 Ans: Poverty, illiteracy, and diseases are common factors in underdeveloped countries. Such countries have a poor economy because they depend on the export of raw materials. They have no factories, no proper communication, public health, and an education system.

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